Based on my research from Google’s official site-Analytics Help information center, here is some default setting that can guide the beginners to get familiar with medium and source in Google Analytics.

Caution: if your company have assign custom values, they might have been using utm_source, utm_mediumto tag the campaigns. Therefore, you might see something differently.

These are the basic rules of thumbs:

Medium: the category of source. They define origins of your traffic and the types of them can be broken down into:

  1. Organic: these are unpaid search traffic
  2. CPC: these are paid search traffic
  3. Referral: these are referral sites that can be connected to your paid/unpaid media or social media sites
  4. Email
  5. None: these are direct traffic

Sources: they can be easily matched to the bigger category aka Medium

  1. Search Engine:
    1. Google
    2. Bing
  2. Referring Site:
    1. LinkedIn
    2. Facebook
    3. Pinterest
  3. Email:
    1. Newsletter
  4. None:
    1. Direct:
      1. typed in URL
      2. Bookmark

Implement a change in your organization

Change levers (here level means each action which compose the entire strategy plan):


  • Credibility
  • Communication
  • Training


  • Technical
  • Political
  • Cultural

Level attributes:


Lever Effectiveness:

  • Urgency of the need to change
  • Authority/Credibility of change agent
  • Timing of the lever’s deployment
  • Receptivity of the change target

Traditionally, company’s approach the change through this procedure: obtain off-the-shelf solutions from consultancy agency or apply to preferences from the change agent, then implement strategy and wait for change outcomes. This often results to high failure rates to the change outcome.

Instead, this strategy course introduces a Context-Sensitive approach. First, you look at the change context through the list of Lever Effectiveness. Sometimes, Urgency can break down into two: Low urgency stands for a proactive change to address an opportunity gap (do X so Y could happen); high urgency stands for a reactive change to address a performance gap (do X so Y should happen).

How does John Kotter’s 8 Steps (Article: Leading Change) fit in this exercise?


During your implementation, there are some resistance and they could come from several perspectives:

  1. Direct costs (change in reward systems, power shifts, requirement for new competencies/capabilities, need for new relationships, challenge to identity, time and energy)
  2. Saving face (sometimes, it’s difficult for the change target to transform from “resistance” to “adaption”)
  3.  Fear of the unknown
  4. Breaking routines
  5. In-congruent systems
  6. In-congruent team dynamics
  7. Anger
  8. Active/Passive aggression
  9. Withdrawal
  10. Fear of loss

In conclusion,understand lever and effectiveness, avoid the missteps, and choose and sequence the lever based on the context may dramatically help to implement the desired change in an organization.